Project 14: Investigating Combination Printmaking and Incorporating Chine Colle Collages – Part Two

26/09 – 11/10/17

Project 14: Investigating Combination Printmaking and Incorporating Chine Colle Collages – Part Two

In this project you will continue with your investigation into combination printmaking by selecting your own mixture of techniques to create a print series.

First of all – hands up to a three-week break through illness and am now finding myself with a pretty tight deadline for two projects. It sounds feasible, yet when developing ideas, deciding which techniques to use and drying times it all starts to crowd in. This may have influenced my decision to be looser in my designs, however, I am also very aware of how long I take to develop an idea and then how restrictive this can be. This time, I plan to be more abstract and more experimental during the process.

Themes

I finally came up with an idea by observing the effect of a round shaving mirror in early morning light, it’s reflective qualities both in image and light, together with the shadow also cast. This made me think of circles in relation to extremes ie extreme heat and cold can both burn, so instead of a straight line with extremes at each end, they form a circle and come together – therefore opposites attract. There is also the eternity of never-ending circles.  As for colours, I was drawn to earthy colours of ochres, siennas pushing towards red ochre/oranges and their complementary of blue to give contrast. To balance circles, we need lines, I thought of parallel lines – things starting and finishing, following a similar path but never meet. Back to balance and that I believe we need balance in all things. These are not heavy political themes but things I sometimes contemplate but have never thought of trying to illustrate before. Of course these are loose symbols and not necessarily obvious to those that think differently to me, this is where I could use text to help explain. I tried not to be too obvious and I wanted to only use two words per image, words that stand alone and together to hint at what I was visualising. I researched some idioms per image of extremes, balance, parallels and eternity – I decided on:

Opposites Attract

Balancing Act

Parallel Lives

Never Ending

Development of ideas in sketchbook 1

Development of ideas in sketchbook 1

Development of ideas in sketchbook 2

Development of ideas in sketchbook 2

 

 

 

 

 

Process and Techniques

First print called Opposites Attract work in progress, several experiments on the theme:

The Never Ending theme was approached in much the same way. Below are the collagraph blocks for the Parallel Lives and Balancing Act themes.

Once I came this far, it was the process that became the challenge. I couldn’t really see lino cuts being the best way forward, particularly for the circles. I decided on using monoprinting masks to build layers of circles in and without squares ie both positive and negative masks.

My main issues became apparent when trying to incorporate the chine colle collage. I decided to use a combination of PVA and glue stick (Pritt Stick as suggested by my tutor). The glue stick was very usable for thicker paper as long as it wasn’t left too long before being stuck down. The PVA was used for thinner papers such as tissue and this was more tricky. I had to keep the application thin and away from the edges to avoid squelching (not sure if that’s a technical term or not?), plus when using masks, it  became obvious that the glue would stick both ways because of the porous nature of the paper. I’m afraid I had to divide the process by sticking the thinner papers down first.

Another problem occurred with subsequent print layers where the paper had dried out. This stopped the ink being taken up so well and was a particular problem with the text masks. Often the entire word would not be successfully printed. I tried re-pressing the print which resulted in smudged lettering, I tried adding more collage and reprinting but had to think of a way to make the ink fill the cut-out text. I then discovered a small water spray bottle, this was a revelation and saved me many times as long as I only partially lifted the print paper to check the result and replaced it exactly. I had one mishap with this where I over-sprayed the paper and it pulled the top layer of the print paper off. Using masks and chine colle took an enormous amount of patience and care, however, I am fairly pleased with the results of the best  prints.

Regarding the “line” based prints, I decided to use collagraph blocks. For straight lines I used a combination of dried spaghetti and thread secured at each end with brass paper fasteners which allowed me to pull the thread tight and straight. For the balance print, the few small circles in the design were cut from thicker paper and stuck down.  As I have mentioned before, proper PVA glue is not available on the island so I use a respectable alternative called Alkyd Sellador. This is very similar, however, it does retain some tackiness, which again, caused a few issues with the collage. I had to ensure that the glue on the print paper side was stickier than the Sellador on the print block side. Often I had to carefully lift the print from the block and use a scalpel to prise the edges of the collage paper from the block, all without smudge the print! All in all, not withstanding the tacky print block, it was more successful to use the collagraph block than the mono print masks. I did return to masks for the text  though. I note that in my sketch book, I had considered using the back drawing/writing technique for the text, however, the text masks worked pretty well.

Below are the prints discarded for various reasons stated in the captions:

Opposites Attract - dislodged print block on registration

Opposites Attract – dislodged print block on registration

 

This was a ghost print of a previous attempt, which looked promising until the block dislodged on registration. I carried on and printed a ghost print of the text after I’d realised, just to experiment. It’s a shame but it still wouldn’t have been the one I chose.

 

 

 

 

 

Opposites Attract - Reprint of text misaligned

Opposites Attract – Reprint of text misaligned

 

This was a contender even with the misaligned text down the edge. In the tradition of going with happy accidents, I pasted some collage paper over the initial text print and then reprinted the word “attract”. This came out a little misaligned, however, it gave the impression of 3D letters, which I liked. I continued and added the blue tissue and copper leaf circles, however, I felt the colours and tones were too similar.

 

 

 

Opposites Attract - Unsure how to proceed

Opposites Attract – Unsure how to proceed

 

This one I still like. The yellow hand-made paper over the entire printed layers of circles, gave it subtly. When I came to print the text, it did not print very clearly so I ran it through the press again, which gave it a blurred effect. I found some lighter hand-made paper and pasted this over the text but this sent the lettering back a little too much. To counteract this, I added the printed dark blue circles. I was pleased with it except it needed something else in contrast and I wasn’t sure what to do next. This one is in limbo.

 

 

Never Ending - smudged ink

Never Ending – smudged ink

 

I was very disappointed when this went wrong. I had carefully added the collage aspects and printed on top successfully. I then saw that it needed a contrast and used the yellow ink to mask in some circular pattern, however, when pulling away the print, I realised that because the previous print ink was still too wet, it had smudged. I did consider continuing with it and using a window mount up to the print but I felt this would be unsatisfactory.

 

 

 

Parallel Lives - collage paper ripped

Parallel Lives – collage paper ripped

 

I was pleased with the outcome of this apart from a novice error with the press.  Forgetting that the collagraph block was thicker than the  perspex mono print block previously used, I omitted to adjust the pressure on the press. I tried to do this mid print but it wasn’t having any of it and on pulling away the print paper, I found that the tissue collage paper had ripped. I tried to tell myself that it added more texture but it wouldn’t wash. I also considered that there was too much dark for the text to print over, so recreated the block with slight adjustments and it worked better.

 

 

Four Prints in a Series

Series of Four Prints

Series of Four Prints

Once the prints are thoroughly dry, I will separate them with newsprint and weight them down to flatten them.  I think on the whole they have been successful and sit well together. I tried to keep the colours consistent although a couple of contrasting elements have helped each be individual but still work together.

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Project 12: Collatype Collage Prints

Project 12: Collatype Collage Prints

09/05-20/06/17

For this project you will be working towards a series of representational images.

Over the time my previous assignment was in transit and with my tutor for feedback, I began thinking about what subject I would like to tackle for this project. Many things were in the news at the time not least the effects of climate change and the continual, nonsensical 140 character ramblings of the new president of America.  This one particular morning, the two collided once again, and the short-sighted lust for dollars over having a sustainable planet for the future of humankind hit the headlines. I had my subject.

I had an initial image in my head of a corporate “suit” lugging a sack of coal (much like the coal men of my rural youth – who used to deliver to our house every month), through a devastated landscape. The value of the coal far outweighing the value of his surroundings in his perception.

This is how I began to thrash out my ideas in my sketchbook. I explored variations on this theme, morphing the dollar sign, using little, round, suited businessmen, adding text etc and kept coming back to this one man who has the audacity to abuse his dubiously acquired power.  It became clear that one image would not sufficiently describe where I was heading. I had a rough vision of the decimated landscape, however, I had to bring “him” in to it too! I started researching and put out a Google search for “smug images of Donald Trump” and was presented with several pages full! As in the public domain, and as my final choice as source material did not have a photographer noted, I am unable to give him or her acknowledgement. I made a few sketches and realised that I needed to simplify the image considerably to have a chance of making it work as a collatype block. See sketchbook pages below:

Developing an idea for Project 12 Collatype print in sketchbook

Developing an idea for Project 12 Collatype print in sketchbook

Further development and notes for climate change image

Further development and notes for climate change image

The decision to create a series of three images to describe my theme - thumbnails and notes

The decision to create a series of three images to describe my theme – thumbnails and notes

 

 

 

 

 

 

Work on the simplification of the image and how to create the print blocks

Work on the simplification of the image and how to create the print blocks

How to create the blocks for my images and scale up to 24x32cm size

How to create the blocks for my images and scale up to 24x32cm size

For the second image - how the layers would look with portrait beneath the landscape

For the second image – how the layers would look with portrait beneath the landscape

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once I had the thumbnails finalised for my three images and had squared them up, I then had to enlarge the scale of each to 24x32cm ie four times the size of the thumbnails. Enlarging the images to this size on paper made it easier to see them in a simplified way and to consider the collage materials that may work from which to print.

The images were then traced and transferred to the same sized card with which I could make each print block. Once these were ready, I then returned to my sketchbook to explore the collage materials that would create the shapes, layers, textures and tones required. From working through each image in my sketchbook, I decided to have texture and tone evident in both the first (portrait) and third (landscape) print block, and due to the two layers, chose to use varying line thicknesses to create a cleaner effect in block 2. Using the test block created in Project 11 to guide my choices, I stuck my selections in my sketchbook. I was initially going to create a page per block, but I seemed to gain sufficient knowledge for each and could use similar materials for all of them, although I kept to different thread and strings for number 2. Once the collage of each block was complete, I fixed the reversed tracings on the wall, along with a pencil rubbing of the portrait as this was the trickiest to visualise. See below:

Enlarged drawing of image 1 - portrait

Enlarged drawing of image 1 – portrait

Enlarged drawing of image 2 - landscape layered over portrait

Enlarged drawing of image 2 – landscape layered over portrait

Enlarged drawing of image 3 - landscape of climate change

Enlarged drawing of image 3 – landscape of climate change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exploring collage materials in sketchbook

Exploring collage materials in sketchbook

Pencil rubbing of collage materials that may be used

Pencil rubbing of collage materials that may be used

All three print blocks completed with collage

All three print blocks completed with collage

 

 

 

 

 

Print block 1 - Portrait with collage applied

Print block 1 – Portrait with collage applied

Print block 2 - Landscape layered over Portrait with collage applied

Print block 2 – Landscape layered over Portrait with collage applied

Print block 3 - Landscape of Climate Change with collage applied

Print block 3 – Landscape of Climate Change with collage applied

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reversed transfer tracings fixed to wall for reference

Reversed transfer tracings fixed to wall for reference

Reversed transfer tracings fixed to wall and sketchbook for reference

Reversed transfer tracings fixed to wall and sketchbook for reference

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Once the print blocks were complete, I set about researching inking techniques to achieve the images I envisaged. I took my time here as I suspected this would be almost the most crucial element for success. The books I looked through are as below, along with my thoughts prior to printing my images:

Printmaking Handbook – Collagraphs and Mixed Media Printing by Brenda Harthill and Richard Clarke 
ISBN 978-0-7136-6396-9

I was interested in the blind printing or embossing techniques as one layer of print. This would add a 3D effect that may help delineate shapes – particularly for the portrait and combined images.

It was also noted how weak colour can enhance a sculptural effect. Some of these ideas can be tried out using newsprint first, although, I would imagine that thicker paper may be more successful for blind printing. In particular, for the third image in the series – the environment post climate change – would benefit from the rubbing of weak ink into the blocks – using blues/greens/grey-blacks for atmosphere and texture combinations.

Learning Linocut by Susan Yeates ISBN 978-0-7552-1330-6

Referencing particularly the inking techniques and tips on page 73 onwards.

Rainbow rolling – alluded to in the course materials also. this may be an additional method to add interest to the combined image (block 2). Considering using “blind printing” then overlaying with rainbow rolling. Other tips were dabbing much smaller areas with a cotton bud – also with homemade dabbers or scrim/muslin pads.

Results of experiments:

I experimented quickly with newsprint, taking a blind print of each block. They rendered unremarkable results, probably due to the thin paper which creased very easily. Using a swatch of the print paper I intended to use for two of the prints, one dry and one damp, I obtained better results. The best being with the dampened paper. Although I am not convinced that it will add anything to these particular images. Using the cartridge paper – the dry paper was nondescript, however, the dampened cartridge was much more successful, shower finer embossed details.

I had intended to use smooth, ivory Somerset printing paper for the middle image which will effectively be linear rather than tonal as it overlays two images. My thinking being  that the paper would add another element to the print. It also appears less processed and bleached – giving the impression of being environmentally friendly – as I have limited choice and I have never made my own paper before – it would have been nice to use recycled paper I made myself, maybe another time. For the other two more textured and tonal prints, I intend to use the cartridge paper which performed well in the experimental blind prints.

Inking of Blocks

I prepared my ink plate taking into consideration what I had learnt and researched, taking each block in order. I prepared trial swatches of colour mixes for each and kept them available for reference for each inking of the blocks. See photos below:

Swatches of blind print experiments with different papers

Swatches of blind print experiments with different papers

Colour palette for the portrait print

Colour palette for the portrait print

Colour palette the linear layered print

Colour palette the linear layered print

 

 

 

 

 

Colour palette the landscape print

Colour palette the landscape print

 

 

 

 

 

All printing paper had been soaked and blotted to achieve a damp surface for printing.

The specification of the colours to use were merely a starting point, and it became obvious that using a roller to apply the ink for both the portrait and the landscape were not an option. Instead, homemade ink dabbers, pieces of rag/muslin and cotton buds were used for adding and wiping away ink to help achieve depth, translucency and tone as required. Coincidentally, four prints were taken from each block, each of which were scrutinised and analysed to adjust the inking for the subsequent prints. It was noted, especially after the experiments with blind printing, just how much pressure was needed in specific areas to achieve a successful result. The outcome being, a print that was also embossed without a separate blind print. Only once did I re-register a print to add additional ink, that being the portrait (number 4 print I believe), this served to make me realise that doing this was a risk I didn’t want to take.

It was extremely hard work ensuring that the correct pressure was applied to each pull of the print and it did make me wonder if using a press with the softness of a “blanket” combined with a mechanical pressure would have been physically “easier” and more controllable. However, I did feel very connected to each result with the effort I had put into it.

Below are photographs of each print per block with associated self critique and notes taken at the time.

Portrait Image:

Portrait image - print 1

Print 1 – Improvements : work dark to light, hair needs more dark for depth, shadows more brown/black, top lip should be darker than bottom, more orange on the ear, more dark above collar and under eyebrows

Print 2 - Improvements: More yellow on hair and eyebrows, more orange on edge of face, ensure ink is pressed into lines, more dark on gauze around eyes, darken top lip, leave middle of lower lip white

Print 2 – Improvements: More yellow on hair and eyebrows, more orange on edge of face, ensure ink is pressed into lines, more dark on gauze around eyes, darken top lip, leave middle of lower lip white

Print 3 - Improvements: Need to balance the yellow of hair and brows with dark, some definition lost along with the smug expression, needs more pressure on printing

Print 3 – Improvements: Need to balance the yellow of hair and brows with dark, some definition lost along with the smug expression, needs more pressure on printing

Print 4 - Improvements: Expression and definition still allusive, second layer of printing had unsuccessful re-registration

Print 4 – Improvements: Expression and definition still allusive, second layer of printing had unsuccessful re-registration

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Combined Image:.

Print 1 - Improvements: Felt the stripes of colour did not help to define the image, does it bring the two layers together too much? Consider using the mid blue for the portrait and the purple black for the landscape

Print 1 – Improvements: Felt the stripes of colour did not help to define the image, does it bring the two layers together too much? Consider using the mid blue for the portrait and the purple-black for the landscape

Print 2 - Improvements: not sure if this is saying what I want. It works ok but I feel it separates the images too much

Print 2 – Improvements: not sure if this is saying what I want. It works OK but I feel it separates the images too much

Print 3 - Improvements: using one dark colour, brings the images together but the registration has slipped blurring the lines, print again with more care

Print 3 – Improvements: using one dark colour, brings the images together but the registration has slipped blurring the lines, print again with more care

Print 4 - Improvements: All one dark colour, happy with print but need to decide which version works best for my intended series.

Print 4 – Improvements: All one dark colour, happy with print but need to decide which version works best for my intended series.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Climate Change Landscape:

Print 1 - Improvements: Happy with colours, more dark over the cloud texture, more consistent pressure when printing, ice caps need more ice blue as the texture describes the shapes, sea needs to a distinct colour from the foreground, trees need more solidity and definition to their edges - simplify, define with consistent pressure

Print 1 – Improvements: Happy with colours, more dark over the cloud texture, more consistent pressure when printing, ice caps need more ice blue as the texture describes the shapes, sea needs to a distinct colour from the foreground, trees need more solidity and definition to their edges – simplify, define with consistent pressure

Print 2 - Improvements: compared to print 1, the background is too dark, make paler and graduate dark down to foreground, here icecaps are more successful for being simpler, dark water line works in both, distant water is too dark and should mirror the sky, the foreground needs even more colour contrast to water

Print 2 – Improvements: compared to print 1, the background is too dark, make paler and graduate dark down to foreground, here icecaps are more successful for being simpler, dark water line works in both, distant water is too dark and should mirror the sky, the foreground needs even more colour contrast to water

Print 3 - Improvements: Very close, more solidity on the tree trunks achieved now need more in the foreground, try to obtain more variation in the sea colour/tone and definition around the ice caps again as in print 2

Print 3 – Improvements: Very close, more solidity on the tree trunks achieved now need more in the foreground, try to obtain more variation in the sea colour/tone and definition around the ice caps again as in print 2

Print 4 - I think I have achieved the best I can although the right hand tree is a little less defined, this does, however, give it a more rotted appearance

Print 4 – I think I have achieved the best I can although the right hand tree is a little less defined, this does, however, give it a more rotted appearance

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

So, from these twelve prints I must choose the best from each set to complete my series of three. After completing all of these, they were hung on their drying line so that I could view them from a distance as a group. My choices will be explained and shown within my critical statement for Assignment 4.

 

Assignment 3: Developing Relief Prints

25/02/17

Assignment 3: Developing Relief Prints

Task 1 (Project 8)

CRITICAL STATEMENT

In this task I feel I have made progress with understanding the meaning of the phrase Personal Voice. I found a subject that is extremely personal to me and one that, I’m sure, is not uncommon but rarely discussed.  The purpose of this is to raise awareness, understanding and empathy, not to be judgemental or critical.

Process:
My process began with brain storming ideas of the theme of my image. This developed from words to symbols, both generally recognised and personally created to represent feelings and events. As I worked with thumbnail sketches, a common shape emerged that could be applied to both aspects of the theme, simply put, illustrating the positive and the negative views. I made decisions based on the importance of my subject rather than purely on the technique of the print. For example, I felt a diptych was relevant and I needed to include text regardless of the complexity.

Challenges:
Making the registration jig went smoothly, until I realised that I’d matched the lino blocks (I had measured and also drawn around each block to cut the apertures), the wrong way round, forgetting that the two images would be reversed. I thought this would have minimal effect as the measurements were the same but some discrepancies were evident during registration.

The early and light layers of ink printed really well and I was excited to press on with the bolder colours. Unfortunately, the blue and red printed inconsistently and I am unsure as to why. The ink was applied evenly, as was the pressure on the paper. There was an instance where I buckled the paper slightly and lifted it from the block in a small patch, and for some reason I could not get the ink to adhere in this area again.

I also failed to notice, after each clean down, that the hessian fibre on the reverse of the lino had frayed in one spot and this picked up some ink on the next print cycle. Another opportunity for picking up ink smudges came from the cardboard jig itself. The border between the two apertures had a slight crease in it, which also printed on subsequent pulls. Consequently, I was unable to find a truly clean print among any of the attempts.

Registration, which previously had been successful, became more hit and miss however careful I tried to be. The minute differences mentioned above regarding the apertures being the wrong way round, along with some slightly misaligned placing of the paper became exaggerated as a combination.

What went right:
Although the end results were disappointing, I am very happy with the development of the idea in this project. The thumbnail sketches suggested previously by my tutor were invaluable. The method of developing the images on separate sheets of paper and then joining them together helped enormously too. I could see the progression in one go, rather that having to turn the pages of the sketchbook and seeing them in isolation.

The research of recognised symbols inspired shapes and direction and also helped me develop elements to illustrate my own journey in a way that related well between the two facets.

The actual reduction method of cutting and printing went surprisingly well, by carefully considering depth of colour and layers of the image, each cutting stage was documented as a guide in my sketchbook.

I got the text the right way round!

Overall

My disappointment with the final results are centred on the lack of clean prints and the inconsistency of printing the bolder colours. However, the design and development of the images, along with the message I was trying to convey, I think, have worked well. This was a difficult subject for me, and may make others feel a little uncomfortable, if not defensive, yet looking at the design again, I feel it has an aesthetic appeal in its own right outside of that. I hope that with further experience in these techniques, that my results will eventually measure up to the message it represents.

Sample print from an edition of eight

Sample print from an edition of nine

 

Task 2 (Project 9)

CRITICAL STATEMENT

Tools and Implements Used for Experimental Mark Making Test Linocut

Selection of implements for mark making on lino

Selection of implements for mark making on lino

I gathered a wide variety of implements from both tool shed and kitchen. Several of the results were surprising, where some tools, I would have thought should have made more of a definite impression than they did. Observations of each implement’s impression results are below:

  1. Small flat head screwdriver – Most marks were very straight, even if I tried to force a curve the line became angular as there was no flexibility in the blade. It wasn’t possible to make a mark with the flat end of the tool as it wasn’t sharp enough, most marks were made with the corner of the “blade”. Wiggling the screw driver from side to side gave the most interesting pattern.
  2. Tile saw blade – as it is a straight blade, I had to bend it into a curve to be able to make any marks. The blade itself is a fine cylindrical shape with an abrasive texture in order to grind/cut ceramic tiles. It is not sharp as such. By using the  blade curved, it widened the surface area and the tiny abrasive teeth made a set of lines or scratches that could be varied by applying differing pressure. No deep cuts could be made.
  3. Stanley knife – Although the blade is sharp and clean cuts were possible, it was very unwieldy to use. I became aware that it cut better by pulling the knife towards me rather than away – a little disconcerting safety-wise. I thought it would cut out shapes easily but I was unable to gouge out the centre of them and the lines were very fine, with varying the thickness of the lines not possible. It was also too easy to cut right through the lino accidentally.
  4. Dinner fork – This was more interesting to use. I could make the more obvious straight set of marks with the prongs, however, by adding pressure and twisting the fork into the lino, it produced the most successful curves so far. It was difficult to achieve a complete circle but was effective none the less.Thickness of line could be varied also by using the fork flat on or sideways. By twisting the end prong into the lino, nice but small, circular holes could be made.
  5. Assortment of keys – I had what appeared to be padlock keys – like small Yale lock type. These made some scraping marks but did not cut deep. Other keys may have been for bicycle locks, being stubby and cylindrical with a small notch at the end. These made some interesting, circular marks, particularly where the end notches cut into the surface, by pressing and twisting them into the lino. Neither type of key made a deep impression.
  6. Pastry cutter wheel – Strangely, this being the tool that I thought would make some of the most effective marks, made barely any impact on the lino’s surface. Although the faint marks were attractive, I doubted they would actually print at all.
  7. Smaller flat head screwdriver – This was a little sharper than the first screwdriver I tried and made lovely wiggly marks. As this was a little smaller than the first, it was easier to handle. I tried using it as if drawing rather than cutting and it could be useful for textural effects.
  8. Small pair of scissors – Using the tips of the blades and actually “scissoring” the lino made strong impressions that were, surprisingly, not at all symmetrical. I also used one blade only and “drew” with it – slightly curved lines were possible. I also managed to gouge small circles with a single blade.
  9. 7cm long brass screw – I thought I’d be able to draw  and make lines with the pointed end, but it wouldn’t move well in the lino. It was also very uncomfortable to hold as when exerting pressure on the surface the spiral of the screw cut into my fingers. It did, however, make good stabbing marks on its point and at an angle. The screw head also failed to make an impression in the surface.
  10. Zester – After the pastry cutter failed, I didn’t hold out much hope for this. Yet it was very successful and had the best gouging capabilities of all the implements, although I think it blunted quite quickly. It could make light marks similar to fret work patterns, or, by exerting more pressure, make deeper ones albeit for not such a long mark. It could also be dug in and turned to give a set of curves. Using it sideways gave fairly ordinary faint lines in comparison.

Further observations on the results and subsequent use of the more successful tools are noted in my sketchbook, along with some experimental printed images.

Task 3 (Project 10)

CRITICAL STATEMENT

Process:

This time the process began with experimentation of both a variety of surfaces as printing blocks and wood cutting chisels. Effects achieved through this experimentation were revisited after developing the image to be printed, then choices were made of surfaces and tools that were appropriate.

Developing the theme for this print was more of a journey that started with an unknown destination. A dark path was followed for a time until I introduced a song and its lyrics as inspiration. I decided to continue along my original personal voice subject, however, moving in a more positive direction as I realised this is more akin to resolving issues rather than wallowing in negativity.

The use of thumbnails again informed my design development. There were many re-thinks during the process, of which most were tested before being applied to the print run. This was enforced after making a colour choice error on the first print of four. This then became the “printer’s draft” for the rest of the series. Off-cuts of the same types of paper were used to test the more unknown effects before committing to the image itself.

This was by far the most experimental print process I have attempted so far. Three different surfaces were used as printing blocks, both woodcutting and linocutting tools, multi-block and reductive printing, and some rollered, some dabbed ink application techniques were employed. Two different print papers were also used, being heavy weight cartridge and heavy weight, slightly textured Somerset printing paper.

Challenges

Taking into account the lessons learnt from Project 8, the registration jig was constructed with care and the paper size was also carefully measured and marked around the aperture with pencil lines. My challenge with registration this time was the torn edges of the print paper making it difficult to line it up with the pencil line. The registration was generally improved but still not perfect.

I had a mental block with achieving the wispy, meandering lines I wanted, which on reflection, was complicated by the use of the background polystyrene printing block. I tried to create the effect with dab printing, however, this made the lines heavy and clumsy, the opposite of my intention.

I also struggled with the colours of the textured “flock of birds” in the print. This was a shame as the actual effect of the cutting was beautiful, again, I made this too heavy and dominant. This was also hindered due to the poor choice of background.

What went right:

The textures achieved with the foam rubber tile and wood cutting tools were very successful regardless of my wrong colour and printing choices.

Most of the planet shapes and details were effective and I am happy with the colours here.

I also decided, after completing the print run, to use the excess ink and print from the foam tile in a less constrained way and made a couple of prints in brighter colours using a roller only. These were more successful and the texture effects were much sharper. By doing this, it informed how my image could be significantly improved if re-done.

I enjoyed using the Somerset printing paper and would like to use it again.

Lessons Learnt

From the extra couple of prints taken from the foam rubber tile, it suddenly occurred to me that the effect I wanted, could have been achieved by discarding the polystyrene tile and just rolling the ink straight onto the foam tile and taking the print from there. The meandering lines would then have been in place and been lighter and fresher in style. The “flock of birds” could then have been added to by dab printing to increase tone using the same or toning colour, which again would have made the effect lighter and more dream like.

Regarding the registration, this would be improved if I used physical guides of cardboard or off-cut lino to place the paper each time.

Overall

Interestingly, the prints looked more successful in photographs rather than in life. The theme of freedom of thought was entirely lost due to the treatment of the dab printing and the wrong colour choices. The impression is of a dark cloud of despair rather than the uplifting song lyrics I was alluding to. I am pleased that I tried different techniques, surfaces and tools, however, I got carried away and stopped seeing with an objective eye. Once the veil had lifted, it was so obvious where I had gone wrong. I will attempt this again, aiming for significant improvement in the results, before moving on to the next section.

Final print 4 of 4 on heavy slightly textured Somerset paper

Final print 4 of 4 on heavy slightly textured Somerset paper 

 

Additional Comments – 09/05/17

From my tutor’s feedback, I now feel that I was too close to the print result to really assess it clearly. The feedback was positive on the paper used and how it helped the inks work better. Regarding the image itself, it was interesting to see that the elements I perceived as “wrong” or not working were the elements that worked better for my tutor, with the planet shapes considered possibly being too obvious. I actually see that myself now and as I review the prints, I am more positive about them. Instead of re-working for this assignment, I think I will leave this as a moment in time and return to the subject in another project. My tutor is keen for me to explore more text and words in my work and I think this would be an interesting route to explore further.

Reflection

Demonstration of Technical and Visual Skills:
I think I had an element of beginners luck with the early projects of this course. With the increased complexity of technique, I have made some basic errors which I think are due to lack of experience. This is particularly prevalent with registration of my prints, I have found that I can struggle with the many aspects involved, ie placing of the print paper, keeping hands and paper clean, thinking through the order of tasks etc. I had to make myself slow down and double-check everything before committing to print, mistakes were often made as I pushed myself to do a little bit more before taking a break. I also had struggles with consistency of the printing of the inks, strangely, this was more obvious when I used my oil based inks. I have found a limitation in the availability of materials on the island, so have had to become more experimental and use paint to print with. I have found a block printing medium that can be mixed with acrylic paint that has vastly increased my palette of colours. The technicalities of different inks and papers are something I need to learn and this, I feel, can only be done by making observations and mistakes. I am learning as I go and although I can become despondent and disappointed with my results at the time, later, I often notice valuable lessons that inform my subsequent attempts. I am becoming more comfortable with designing my prints, trying to think in layers, sequencing my cutting and printing carefully, and fully exploring the composition until I am satisfied with it. I am not a natural colourist and this requires more practice. I am currently attending a locally tutored course in abstract painting and we focus on colour, its relationships and importance of place. I struggle with this, however, it is very helpful and gradually, I hope to improve this skill.

Quality of Outcome:
I feel that I present my work coherently and to the best of my ability at the time. That said, I feel very much a novice in the technicalities of printmaking at present and this can only improve with practice. The actual physical presentation and realisation of my ideas from a skill point of view are disappointing to me, however, I am constantly reviewing and learning from my mistakes. I hope to improve against this criteria in time and with experience.

Demonstration of Creativity:
I believe my sketchbook work is crucial to achieving good results in quality of outcome. I begin with a vague idea, brainstorm from the idea, discarding nothing to start and then bringing the dominant themes together, narrowing down my selections. I make judgements all along this process, making choices, re-thinking shapes and colours, experimenting and making drafts before I settle on the “thing”. Even then, I try to keep my mind open for accidental and evolving ideas that may improve the outcome. Some things may not be appropriate for that specific project but are noted for future ones. With regards to my personal voice, I feel confident that I have had an epiphany – with project 8, for example, the emotive subject matter was extremely personal to me. I also found, once I’d got into my subject, that the ideas and symbolism I required to illustrate the concept flowed easily. I was able to recognise evolving elements that connected with each other and clearly related to my subject. It was a cathartic and therapeutic experience that I am convinced is the beginning of a personal journey.

Context:
I feel that I am strong in personal reflective learning and that I can express myself well in that regard. Being self-critical and analysing my progress informs my choices and judgements for progression.  I enjoy researching other artists and now printmakers, and learning from their working practices and processes. From where I may have made cursory reviews of others’ work, I now look more deeply into how they express themselves and their message, as well as techniques and materials used.

In general, although feeling out of my depth regarding printmaking skills, I think I have grown in other ways that have improved my capacity for creating ideas and implementing concepts overall. I am feeling positive and am looking forward to learning more.

Research Point: Multi Block Linocuts

19/09/16

Research Point: Multi Block Linocuts

Look at the work of Edward Bawden, and his son, contemporary printmaker Richard Bawden. Take a close look at the way they have worked with multiple blocks.

I decided to make most of my notes in my sketchbook for easier reference whilst working. I have saved some of my favourite images to my Pinterest board:

https://uk.pinterest.com/ginaemmett/contemporary-printmakers/

Edward Bawden

Reference sites:

Wikipedia

www.tate.org.uk/art/artists/edward-bawden-707

Specific images discussed:

Sahara (1928)

www.Edwardbawden.co.uk

Swan and Grass (white, yellow, grey) (1950s)

www.Edwardbawden.co.uk

 

Edward Bawden - notes regarding multi block printing in A4 sketchbook

Edward Bawden – notes regarding multi block lino cuts in A4 sketchbook

 

Richard Bawden

Reference site:

http://www.birchamgallery.co.uk/catalogue/artist/richard:bawden/

Specific images discussed:

Amaryllis:

http://www.birchamgallery.co.uk/catalogue/artist/Richard:Bawden/RBNIS003/?category=prints

Finchingfield:

http://www.birchamgallery.co.uk/catalogue/artist/Richard:Bawden/RBNIS043/?category=prints

Richard Bawden - notes in A4 sketchbook

Richard Bawden – notes regarding multi block linocuts in A4 sketchbook

What can you learn from them?

  • The most obvious point is the importance of clean registration when overprinting with numerous blocks for layers of colour.
  • As Edward Bawden’s linocuts were often designs for wallpaper, they needed to be simple yet effective, fresh yet representative of their subject.
  • A larger piece of work can be made by using smaller blocks printing alongside one another, be that for wallpaper or a larger image.
  • With Richard Bawden, I learnt that any level of detail is possible by using minimal colours with overlays of (black in his case) outline, directional line for contours and variations of hatching and stippling for tonal changes.
  • A multitude of colours may be suggested when only 3 or 4 are actually used. Layering transparent colours can produce another and optically mixing by placing textured colours alongside each other also enhances the illusion.
  • Simple subjects can be taken out of the ordinary by the treatment given to them.
  • There is no subject that can not be attempted.
  • Although I did not find any process information for the two artists, I got the impression that many drawings and plans were worked through before cutting the lino.
  • I am also very glad I studied these two printmakers before attempting the printing of my multi block linocuts! It’s reiterated the care I should take and given me inspiration and a little more confidence to just do it!